FOCUS offers the possibility of Load Pull and Amplifier Design courses.

These courses must be ordered and arranged separately from the purchasing and installation of the load pull system.

The courses provide

an integrated front-to-back environment for optimizing power and noise performance of products used in wireless, radio & TV, military, satcom, and ATE segments. As the first course in Focus load-pull, and part of the introductory sequence at Focus’ Technology. The course introduces you to the benefits and applications of Focus loadpull, including:

  • LP 101             Basic Loadpull                              2 Days

This course is recommended for first-time Focus users, engineering management,

and those needing a refresher on load-pull principles.Introduction to Focus LPEx Load-Pull Software Environment.


– How do Focus Tuners Work?
– Focus Load-Pull System Configuration
– Vector Network Analyzer Theory and Review
– System Calibration and Verification
– Introduction to Test-Fixture De-Embedding
– Your First Load-Pull Session
– Interpretation and Application of Load-Pull Data
– Managing and Using Load-Pull Data for Design

  •  LP 102             Intermediate Loadpull I: RF Power Applications                              1-2 Days

Prerequisites:      LP 101 recommended

A second course on load-pull, including advanced topics such as harmonic load-pull with Focus MPT, introductory test-fixture design and de-embedding, on-wafer applications, theory of IM, ACPR, and EVM loadpull, and system accuracy and repeatability. Strong focus on constructing load-pull sessions for effective product design for wireless applications such as GaAs RF PA modules for portable applications and multi-stage LDMOS & GaN line-up design for base-station applications. Can be tailored to on-wafer mm-wave applications. Part of the FU core sequence for standard system installation.

  •  LP 103             Intermediate Loadpull II: Noise Applications                                  1-2 Days

Prerequisites:      LP 101 recommended

A second course on load-pull, including advanced topics such as fundamental noise theory, noise system architecture, noise parameter characterization, noise source-pull, on-wafer calibration and de-embedding, on-wafer applications, and system accuracy and repeatability. Strong focus on constructing measurement sessions for parametric noise characterization and modeling for CMOS, SOI, SiGe and III-V & II-VI technologies. Can be tailored on-wafer mm-wave applications. Part of the FU core sequence for standard noise system installation.

  • LP 104             Advanced Loadpull I                                                                          1-2 Days

Prerequisites:      LP 102 recommended

A third course on load-pull, including specialized topics such as wideband modulation (multi-carrier base-station, WiMAX, LTE, and WiFi), characterizing and minimizing memory effects (electrical and thermal), use of advanced modulation sources, and characterization of pulse power for RADAR applications. Special emphasis on data interpretation, including ACPR, ACLR, EVM, and CDP contours to maximize transistor efficiency and linearity simultaneously using nested source-pull and load-pull methods. Introductory treatment of PCB matching network synthesis methods to realize source and load impedances identified as optimum by loadpull.

LP 120             Introduction to the Vector Network Analyzer                                   1 Day

Prerequisites:      LP 102 recommended

An introduction to the VNA, including s-parameter theory, operational overview, architecture, and calibration methods. Special emphasis on the VNA for load-pull system characterization and tuner characterization to enhance accuracy. Rigorous introduction to VNA calibration methods, including SOLT, LRM, and TRL in various media such as 7 mm coaxial and microstrip.

  • LP 121             Introduction to Loadpull Accuracy Analysis                                   0.5 Day

Prerequisites:      LP 102 or LP 103 and LP 120

An introduction to load-pull accuracy analysis, addressing such questions as system verification, system accuracy, and system process tracking. Introduction to the DeltaGT method of system verification, gain-circle verification, and absolute power verification. Also covers dynamic range optimization for ACPR/ACLR measurement.

  • LP 130             Introductory Test-Fixture Design for Wireless PA’s                          1 Day

Prerequisites:      LP 102,  LP 120, and LP 121

A first course on test-fixture design for wireless PA applications, including topics such as physical design and layout, connectors, substrate, and metallization. Covers ideal de-embedding, adapter removal, single-tier, and two-tier de-embedding methods. Introduction to pre-matching theory, bias network design, cooling, and power limitations.

  • LP 132             On-Wafer Calibration and De-Embedding                                          1 Day

Prerequisites:      LP 102 or LP 103,  LP 120, and LP 121

An advanced course covering on-wafer measurements for sub 1 Ohm RF power load-pull and highly mismatched CMOS noise characterization. Includes use of MPT technology and pre-matching probes for high-power on-wafer load-pull and CMOS/SOI/SiGe noise characterization and modeling. SOLT, LRM, LRRM, and TRL calibration methods are covered, as is probe de-embedding. Introduction to oscillation mitigation and control.