Pending

This is an up-to-date list of all US Patents pending for Focus Microwaves Inc.

  • 16/266,711

    0-04-2019

    Liquid Cooled High Power Impedance Tuner

    High power impedance tuners suffer from intense heating of the center conductor of the tuner airline (slabline), due to dissipated RF and DC power and, in addition of high electric field between the metallic tuning probe (slug) and the center conductor, also from associated thermal expansion causing bending of the center conductor and electrical short.

    If the thermal expansion cannot be accommodated by structural means, the center conductor is cooled using re-circulating low loss dielectric liquid (Mineral Oil), which fills the slabline and dissipates the heat. The cooling dielectric liquid is guided through an external refrigerator and recycled back into the slabline.

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  • 16/262,112

    0130-2019

    Waveguide Slide Screw Tuner with Rotating Disc Probes

    A waveguide low profile slide-screw impedance tuner for seamless on-wafer integration uses rotating metallic tuning probe. This ensures high resolution in the area where the probe penetration is maximum (high GAMMA), a smooth increase of depth (basic anti-electrical discharge – “Corona” form) and compensation for the negative phase trajectory at higher GAMMA,

    native to traditional vertically moving stub-probes in waveguide tuners. Also, using rotating disc-probes simplifies the tuner mechanics, eliminates the cumbersome precise vertical axis and gear and flattens the tuner profile for best direct connection with wafer-probes.

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  • 16/254,942

    01-23-2019

    High Gamma Disc-Tuning Probes for Impedance Tuners

    High GAMMA disc-shaped tuning probes for high frequency electro-mechanical slide screw impedance tuners use a notch slug concept, whereby the head of the tuning probes is split in two distinct lobes in a static pre-matching configuration. The disc-probes rotate around an axis perpendicular to the axis of the slotted airline of the tuner and do not require a cumbersome vertical axis.

    The rotation moves the tuning lobes gradually into the slot of the airline and controls the amplitude of the reflection factor through increasing coupling. The disc-probes comprise two diametrical opposite tuning lob assemblies designed to create high reflection (GAMMA) at two distinct frequency bands, one for high end frequencies and one for low end frequencies.

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  • 16/254,720

    01-23-2019

    High Gamma On-Wafer Load Pull System

    A millimeter-wave, high GAMMA on-wafer load pull system uses a tuner with extended inclined slabline (bend-line) and a manually controlled low profile pre-matching module, mounted on the bent section of the slabline next to the wafer-probe. The pre-matching module uses a mobile sliding rack and a rotating tuning probe; the rack is mounted on the slabline extension and controlled by a fixed pinion.

    Both the rack and tuning probe position and immersion into the slabline are controlled using sidewise mounted easily accessible manual knobs. The low profile of the pre-matching module is a crucial feature and allows integration on the extended slabline of the tuner in immediate proximity of the wafer-probe, thus minimizing any additional insertion loss and maximizing tuning range. Manual handling of the pre-matching tuning module is easy and a pre-calibration allows efficient on-wafer load pull operations.

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  • 16/250,254

    01-17-2019

    Integrated Pre-Matching Module for Millimeter-Wave Tuner

    An integrated manual pre-matching module for on-wafer load pull tuner operation uses a mobile rack and a rotating reflective probe, mounted and sliding on the tuner slabline extension. Both the tuning probe position and immersion into the slabline are controlled using sidewise mounted easily accessible knobs.

    The low profile of the module does not conflict with the microscope and allows integrating on the extended slabline of the tuner in immediate proximity of the wafer probe, thus minimizing any additional insertion loss and maximizing tuning range. Manual handling of the pre-matching tuning module is easy and efficient without disturbing the on-wafer load pull operations.

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  • 16/246,022

    01-11-2019

    Transmission Line for High Power Tuners

    Impedance tuners used in high power measurements suffer fast heating and consequently mostly linear thermal expansion of the central conductor, which has a very small mass and is thermally isolated from the slabline walls and the tuner housing.

    This leads to false measurements or catastrophic tuner failure (short) of either the DUT or the tuner. Gold plated INVAR and SUPER-INVAR center conductor material is preferred to traditional stainless-steel rod. The body of the airline is made of high conductivity low cost Aluminum. INVAR type alloys quasi eliminate the thermal expansion, reducing it by a factor between 10 and 40 compared to Steel. Practical tests have shown significant improvement in thermal behavior.

     

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  • 16/224,998

    12-19-2018

    Compact Millimeter-WaveTuner

    A compact millimeter-wave slide screw impedance tuner allows reducing to a minimum the insertion loss between the tuner and the wafer-probe. The structure of the tuner uses a 1mm slabline and adapters, an eccentrically rotating remotely controlled wideband tuning probe and a sliding rack on which the tuning-probe is attached;

    the position of the rack is controlled by a permanently anchored motorized pinion. The construction method allows for maximum compactness, needed in order to be able to attach the tuner directly on the wafer-probe and minimize the insertion loss, while maintaining key advantages of electro-mechanical tuners, such as robustness, linearity, simplicity, tuning resolution and calibration and compatibility with existing load pull software and technology

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  • 16/189,404

    11--13-2018

    Calibration and Load Pull Method for RF and Baseband Frequencies

    A test method allows investigating the dependence of microwave gain, power and linearity behavior of transistors, in which modulated RF signal is injected, as a function of source and load impedance at the signal RF carrier frequency and its harmonics as well as at the modulation (baseband) frequency, using passive programmable tuners.

    A calibration method generates data allowing the test setup to simultaneous and independent tune at RF and baseband frequencies without the need of on-line vector signal measurement. This allows optimizing baseband frequency impedances for nonlinear amplifier performance with modulated signal, such as ACPR, EVM, IMD etc. Baseband tuning is done using low frequency programmable impedance tuners inserted in the DC branch of the bias networks, which operate as frequency diplexers.

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  • 16/176,566

    10-31-2018

    Calibration Method for Coupler-Tuner Assembly

    Test setup and calibration method for wideband, integrated assemblies of signal couplers with single (wideband) and multi-probe (harmonic) impedance tuners using two-port and four-port network analyzers for exact wave and time-domain measurements of strongly mismatched poor directivity ultra-wideband coupler-tuner configurations.

  • 16/165,531

    10-19-2018

    Coaxial Adjustable Wave Probe

    Wideband coaxial low loss signal couplers use an electro-magnetic loop placed perpendicularly in a mantle hole of the external wall of the coaxial airline. The signal coupling factor increases with frequency thus favoring detection of harmonic components generated by the nonlinearly operated RF transistors.

    In order to adapt also to various power levels and associated harmonic receiver sensitivity the coupling factor can be adjusted either by controlling the penetration of the loop inside the airline cavity or by rotating the loop around its vertical axis.

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  • 16/151,838

    10-04-2018

    Active Electronic Tuner

    An active digital electronic tuner (AET) uses a digital PIN diode electronic tuner, an adjustable directional coupler, two circulators and a power amplifier to create a compact load pull tuner device able of generating octave frequency band virtual reflection factors |Gamma| ≥ 1 at milli-second tuning speed.

  • 16/118,766

    08-31-2018

    Fast Noise Parameter Measurement System

    A fast wideband four noise parameter measurement and extraction method uses randomly distributed source impedance states, which are generated using wideband electro-mechanical tuners, and noise figure data collected in fast frequency sweeps; because of the random nature of source impedances reliable noise parameter values are extracted using selected source admittance states generated by sweeping the frequency by small amounts around

    a set of center frequencies instead of moving the tuner probe, hereby using the natural tuner phase rotation instead of a (time consuming) mechanical tuner sweep at a fixed center frequency. The core of the method is swapping slow tuner mechanical sweep with fast frequency sweeps, allowed since the 4 noise parameters are benign frequency functions. Multiple noise parameter extractions for all possible cross-combinations of the source impedance states at each measured frequency allows reliable and physically meaningful generation of wideband noise parameters, even for very low noise and potentially unstable DUT’s.

     

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  • 16/111,391

    08-24-2018

    Millimeterwave Tuners with External Airline

    A passive slide screw load pull tuner structure can be used on-wafer, in millimeter-wave frequencies from 20 to 110 GHz. It uses a short external (not extended) slabline, mounted sloped and allowing direct contact with the wafer probe, thus permitting the tuning probe to come as close to the wafer probe as physically possible;

    this minimizes the insertion loss between tuner and DUT and, thus, generates the maximum possible tuning range of a passive electro-mechanical impedance tuner.

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  • 16/105,143

    08-20-2018

    High Speed Hybrid Load and Source Pull System

    A high speed hybrid (active-passive) tuning system comprises a passive slide screw tuner using a slabline in which also fixed and adjustable signal couplers (wave-probes) are mounted, leading to and from an active signal injection loop using an electronic tuner connected to the second port of a circulator.

    The wave-probes control the static amplitude and phase of the feedback signal and the electronic tuner controls the actual dynamic (high speed) amplitude and phase of the re-injected signal. The slide screw tuner serves as an additional static pre-matching for substantial reduction of the required feedback injection power. Appropriate passive and active calibration and search routines allow identifying tuner states satisfying DUT parameter targets.

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  • 16/104,988

    08-20-2018

    Transforming Load Pull Test Fixture for Wave Measurements

    Coplanar waveguide microwave transistor test fixtures include integrated wideband signal sensors/couplers and allow the detection of the main signal and its harmonic components, generated by a transistor in high power operation mode, by using a phase-calibrated network or signal analyzer and thus the reproduction of real time signal waveforms.

  • 16/039,383

    07-19-2018

    MHz Range Harmonic Impedance Tuner and Method

    An electro-mechanical MHz range harmonic load pull tuner is made as a cascade of filter sections and independent tuning sections; the filter section includes three parallel series resonant circuits, each set including one inductor and one adjustable capacitor.

    The tuning section includes three parallel tuning modules; each module comprising three adjustable shunt air capacitors inter-connected using coaxial cables of appropriate length. Each capacitor is remotely adjustable to 10 or 20 values (settings); the tuner creates independently controllable impedances at three (harmonic) frequencies in octave size frequency bands between 5 and 150MHz. An Error Function-based optimization algorithm allows impedance tuning at three frequencies independently, by optimized searching among the more than 209 =512*109 possible combined tuner states. Stepper motors, drivers and control software are used to automate, calibrate and use the harmonic tuner for automated harmonic load pull measurement.

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  • 16/038,431

    07-18-2018

    Slide Screw Tuners with Offset Tuning Probes and Method

    A passive slide screw load pull tuner structure can be used on-wafer, in millimeter-wave frequencies from 25 to 110GHz and above. It uses special tuning probe brackets and a short slabline mounted below the tuner housing, which holds the control gear. The tuner is mounted under an angle matching the angle of the wafer-probe, is connected directly of the wafer-probe and ensures optimum tuning range.

  • 16/004,579

    06-12-2018

    Coplanar Load Pull Test Fixture for Wave Measurements

    Coplanar waveguide microwave transistor test fixtures include integrated wideband signal sensors/couplers and allow the detection of the main signal and its harmonic components, generated by a transistor in high power operation mode, by using a phase-calibrated network or signal analyzer and thus the reproduction of real time signal waveforms.

  • 15/869,467

    12-01-2018

    Compact Harmonic Tuner with Rotating Probes

    A compact harmonic tuner system uses a two-carriage harmonic slide-screw impedance tuner employs, single and dual frequency band metallic disc probes travelling along and rotating diametrically inside the same slabline, which therefore is only one half, instead of full, the wavelength long at the minimum frequency of operation.  Using disc probes allows probe control operation

    without high precision vertical axes, as well as high resolution in the area where the gap between center conductor and probe is small (high GAMMA), a smooth increase of proximity between probe and center conductor and the possibility to compensate for the negative phase slope at higher GAMMA, native to traditional slide screw tuners using vertically moving square probes (slugs).

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  • 15/862,671

    05-01-2018

    Hybrid Digital Electronic Tuner

    A hybrid digital electronic tuner (HDET) uses a modified forward signal power injection technique, a variance of a prior art Gamma Boosting Unit (GBU) technique, cascaded with a digital, PIN diode based, electronic tuner, all integrated in the same low loss parallel plate airline (slabline) to create a compact hybrid tuner unit able of generating thousands of high reflection factors (|Gamma| ≥ 1) at millisecond tuning speed.

  • 15/848,475

    20-12-2017

    Frequency Adjustable Pre-Matching Coaxial Transistor Test Fixture

    Coaxial microwave transistor test fixtures provide lowest insertion loss possible and include, as part of the input and output sections, transformer networks in form of single stage λ/4 segments bringing (pre-matching) the system 50Ω load closer to the conjugate internal impedance of power transistors. The transforming networks are flat, cylindrical or have oval or elliptical cross sections and have

    adjustable length, thus operating optimally for transistors with varying optimum frequency and internal impedance and/or capacitive or inductive impedance part. The change in length is done without affecting the overall fixture geometry and structure. The fixtures can be calibrated using standard TRL method.

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  • 15/847,366

    19-12-2017

    Adjustable Pre-Matching Coaxial Transistor Test Fixture

    Coaxial microwave transistor test fixtures provide lowest insertion loss possible and include, as part of the input and output sections, transformer networks either in form of single stage λ/4 segments, or, for larger bandwidth, multiple step transforming segments from 50Ω to the impedance closer to the internal impedance of the power transistor.

    The transforming networks are flat or elliptical and can be rotated around the axis of the center conductor and allow adjusting the characteristic impedance of the pre-matching section by a typical ratio of up to 2.3:1, resulting in a DUT presented Max to Min impedance transforming ratio of over 5:1.

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  • 15/847,139

    19-12-2017

    Pre-Matched Coaxial Transistor Test Fixture

    Coaxial microwave transistor test fixtures provide lowest insertion loss possible and include, as part of the input and output sections, transformer networks either in form of single stage λ/4 segments, or, for larger bandwidth, multiple step transforming segments from 50Ω to the impedance closer to the internal impedance of the power transistor.

    The transforming networks are flat or elliptical and can be rotated around the axis of the center conductor and allow adjusting the characteristic impedance of the pre-matching section by a typical ratio of up to 2.3:1, resulting in a DUT presented Max to Min impedance transforming ratio of over 5:1.

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  • 15/800,147

    01-11-2017

    Hybrid Harmonic Tuner

    A hybrid harmonic tuner uses a reverse injection technique, a modified adjustable Gamma Boosting Unit (GBU) cascaded with a passive multi-carriage harmonic impedance tuner in the same slabline and housing. The GBU samples a portion of the forward travelling signal at the fundamental frequency, adjusts its phase and amplitude, amplifies it and injects it back, in reverse direction into the main signal path.

    In the hybrid tuner technique, as is herein implemented, the forward coupler (wave-probe) is mounted on the vertical axis of a slide screw tuner-type carriage and, being horizontally and vertically controlled, it eliminates the need of a separated phase shifter and attenuator, which makes the solution better, simpler and more effective; harmonic tuning is performed using only the multi-carriage passive tuner.

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  • 15/788,430

    19-10-2017

    Hybrid Electronic Tuner

    A hybrid RF electronic impedance tuner is made using multiple PIN diodes or MOSFETs mounted in a low loss slabline, between the bottom surface of the center conductor and ground. The diodes and FETs are DC controlled individually and spaced appropriately along the slabline for maximum Gamma and bandwidth.

    The electronic tuner is combined with a feed forward active loop using an adjustable wave-probe coupler and a fixed coupler or circulator to enhance the reflected signal towards the DUT. As a result, reflection factor up to 1 at DUT reference plane is reached, combined with the high tuning speed of the electronic tuner.

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  • 15/681,975

    21-08-2017

    Hybrid Split Signal Load Pull System with Wave Probe

    A hybrid, fundamental and harmonic frequency, active injection load pull test setup includes a harmonic receiver, impedance tuners and operates using only a single power source at the fundamental frequency Fo whereby the signal is split between input and output signal path.

    The output signal portion is retrieved through the coupled port of an adjustable wave-probe, which is incorporated into the input tuner and attached on the vertical axis of one of the tuner’s mobile carriages. Wideband and harmonic impedance tuners serve for pre-matching the DUT output and reducing the injection power requirement; the amplitude and phase control in the feedback loop uses the variable wave-probe coupler mounted inside the source tuner.

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  • 15/677,086

    15-08-2017

    High Power Low Frequency Tuners

    A high power low frequency tuner uses motor controlled rotary capacitors submerged in low loss high epsilon dielectric fluid and lengths of semi-rigid RF cable interconnecting the floating static blocks of the capacitors, the rotating blocks being grounded. And tuner calibration and tuning methods, allowing accurate tuning and perfect Smith chart impedance coverage.

    The full calibration lasts several hours and is reduced by the “de-embedded” calibration algorithm to minutes. A maximum power embodiment comprises full immersion of capacitors and interconnecting cables in circulated dielectric liquid (mineral oil) for breakdown voltage increase and heat removal.

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  • 15/654,318

    19-07-2017

    Setup and Method for Noise Parameter Measurement

    A noise parameter test setup allows accurately measuring the four noise parameters (Fmin, Rn, Γopt) of microwave transistors over a wide frequency range using two distinct wideband measurement paths, based on differential wafer probes, instead of SPDT switches, to commute between s-parameter (signal)

    measurement and noise measurement path, avoiding thus the uncertainty of the accuracy as well limited availability of SPDT switches. Calibration of the system is the same as when using switches, when hopping the DUT chip from one set or subset of probes to the next. Additional power control precautions of the VNA sources are necessary to avoid injecting signal power into the sensitive noise receiver during s-parameter measurements and jamming the weak noise power during noise measurement.

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  • 15/615,879

    07-06-2017

    High Speed Hybrid Load Pull Tuner

    A high speed hybrid tuner comprises a slide screw automatic tuner in a traditional reflection configuration and an active forward injection loop using a digital electronic tuner in a transmission configuration. The forward active injection loop comprises two compact signal couplers (wave-probes) of which at least one is adjustable, an electronic tuner, circulator, feedback power amplifier;

    the passive tuner comprises one or more mobile carriages travelling along the slabline and carrying metallic tuning probes, used to create passive reflection factors. The incoming signal is sampled, high speed modulated in amplitude and phase by the electronic tuner and fed back into the slabline in combination with the passive reflected signal, to create a hybrid load presented to the DUT.

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  • 15/610,018

    31-05-2017

    Programmable Harmonic Amplitude and Phase Controller

    A continuously adjustable programmable harmonic microwave attenuator and linear phase controller (HAPC) uses mobile signal couplers (wave-probes) in a slabline structure which is terminated with 50 Ohms. The coupled ports of the wave-probes are connected with the output port of the unit via a power combiner using flexible RF cables. The wave-probes are attached to the vertical axes of

    mobile carriages, which are placed at variable distances from the input port, corresponding to the expected transmission phases, whereas the depth, at which the wave-probes are inserted into the slabline, determines the coupling factors and thus the value of the attenuation. The unit can be calibrated at a number of harmonic frequencies typically equal to the number of the wave-probes used.

     

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  • 15/479,569

    05-04-2017

    Load Pull Method for Transistors Driven by Modulated Signal

    A test method allows investigating the dependence of microwave gain, power and  linearity  behavior of transistors, in which modulated RF signal is injected, as a function of source and load impedance at the signal RF carrier frequency and its harmonics as well as at the modulation (baseband) IF frequency using passive programmable tuners.

    A calibration method allows synthesizing independently impedances at the various frequencies without the need of on-line vector signal measurement. The test setup performs independent impedance tuning at RF and IF frequencies of the modulated signal at the input and output of the DUT. This allows optimizing IF impedances for nonlinear amplifier performance with modulated signal, such as ACPR, EVM etc. IF tuning is done using a low frequency programmable impedance tuner inserted in the DC branch of the bias networks, which act as frequency diplexers.

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  • 15/440,734

    23-02-2017

    A Hermetic RF Connection for On-Wafer Operation

    A hermetically sealed link for low loss coaxial airline connection between the wafer probe and the RF connector of an external instrument with 30 or 45 degrees wafer probes allows continuous, micro-positioner controlled, 3 axis horizontal and vertical probe movement. A flexible sealing ring ensures airtight and/or RF-EMI shielded operation. A metallic or plastic collar ensures wafer testing under EMI, airtight or high temperature conditions.

  • 15/341,622

    01-11-2016

    Calibration Method for High Gamma Combo Tuner

    An RF electronic impedance tuner uses multiple PIN diodes, Varactors or MOSFETs, mounted in a low loss slab-line, between the bottom surface of the center conductor and ground, are DC controlled individually and spaced appropriately along the slab-line in order to generate maximum Gamma and bandwidth.

    The electronic tuner is combined with a slide screw tuner, using the same slab-line in various configurations, before, after or sharing the same slab-line section, mounted on top of each-other. Calibration on a VNA allows high Gamma and harmonic tuning.

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  • 15/298,286

    20-10-2016

    High Gamma Electronic Tuner

    An RF electronic impedance tuner uses multiple PIN diodes, Varactors or MOSFETs, mounted in a low loss slab-line, between the bottom surface of the center conductor and ground, are DC controlled individually and spaced appropriately along the slab-line in order to generate maximum Gamma and bandwidth.

    The electronic tuner is combined with a slide screw tuner, using the same slab-line in various configurations, before, after or sharing the same slab-line section, mounted on top of each-other. Calibration on a VNA allows high Gamma and harmonic tuning.

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  • 14/564,396

    09-12-2014

    Hybrid Split Signal Load Pull System

    A split signal hybrid, fundamental and harmonic frequency, active injection load pull setup includes a harmonic receiver, impedance tuners and operates using only a single power source at the fundamental frequency Fo and a single power amplifier.

    Wideband and harmonic impedance tuners serve for pre-matching the DUT and reducing the injection power requirement, as well as building programmable both wideband and harmonic adjustable attenuators and phase shifters in the power injection (feedback) loop.

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