Noise measurements allow the determination of the four Noise Parameters of a device (transistor). Focus’ Noise Modules integrate well with various third party noise receivers.
Noise Parameters: These are four numbers that fully describe the noise behaviour of an active or passive device (twoport) at a given frequency. For practical reasons we use the following quantities as Noise Parameters:
Focus’ noise parameter extraction routines leverage the PNA-X’s unique implementation
of the cold-source noise figure measurement technique. This specific technique requires a noise source to determine the kBG (gain-bandwidth constant) of the system and a passive mechanical tuner is used to characterize the noise receiver across both the impedance and frequency space. This step is imperative to obtain fully vector-source-corrected measurements.
A RF down conversion stage might be required if the frequency of noise measured exceeds the receiver’s bandwidth. Focus offers noise modules which support down conversion for optimal speed and performance.
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Input Noise Module
|1||INM-2600||up to 26.5 GHz||3.5mm||0.80 dB||1.60|
|2||INM-4000||up to 40 GHz||2.9mm||0.91 dB||1.80|
|3||INM-5000||up to 50 GHz||2.4mm||0.99 dB||1.80|
|4||INM-6700||up to 67 GHz||1.85mm||1.12 dB||1.90|
Output Noise Module
|wdt_ID||Model||s||Frequency||Connector||Downconverter||Minimum Gain (dB)||Maximum VSWR|
|1||ONM-2600||up to 26.5 GHz||3.5mm||29||1.8:1|
|2||ONM-4000||up to 40 GHz||2.9mm||30 for ≤26.5GHz, 29 for 26-40GHz||2.1:1|
|3||ONM-4000-DC||up to 40 GHz||2.9mm||▼||30 for ≤26.5GHz, 29 for 26-40GHz||2.1:1|
|4||ONM-5000||up to 50 GHz||2.4mm||27 for ≤26.5GHz, 27 for 26-40GHz, 28 for 40-50GHz||2:1|
|5||ONM-5000-DC||up to 50 GHz||2.4mm||▼||27 for ≤26.5GHz, 27 for 26-40GHz, 28 for 40-50GHz||2:1|
|6||ONM-6700||up to 67 GHz||1.85mm||29 for ≤26.5GHz, 28.5 for 26-40GHz, 28 for 40-50GHz, 21 for 50-65GHz||3:1|
|7||ONM-6700-DC||up to 67 GHz||1.85mm||▼||29 for ≤26.5GHz, 28.5 for 26-40GHz, 28 for 40-50GHz, 21 for 50-65GHz||3:1|
Noise Circles & Stability Regions
Noise Parameters: Minimum Noise Figure / Rn / Gamma Opt / Phase of Gamma Opt