Noise measurements allow the determination of the four Noise Parameters of a device (transistor). Focus’ Noise Modules integrate well with various third party noise receivers.
Noise Parameters: These are four numbers that fully describe the noise behaviour of an active or passive device (twoport) at a given frequency. For practical reasons we use the following quantities as Noise Parameters:
Focus’ noise parameter extraction routines leverage the PNA-X’s unique implementation
of the cold-source noise figure measurement technique. This specific technique requires a noise source to determine the kBG (gain-bandwidth constant) of the system and a passive mechanical tuner is used to characterize the noise receiver across both the impedance and frequency space. This step is imperative to obtain fully vector-source-corrected measurements.
A RF down conversion stage might be required if the frequency of noise measured exceeds the receiver’s bandwidth. Focus offers noise modules which support down conversion for optimal speed and performance.
|Model||Frequency||Insertion Los||VSWR||Min. Gain||Max.VSWR||Connector|
|NMS-2600||up to 26.5 GHz||0.80 dB||1.61||29 for 0.8-26.5GHz||1.8:1||3.5mm|
|NMS-4000||up to 40 GHz||0.91 dB||1.81||30 for ≤26.5GHz, 29 for 26-40GHz||2.1:1||2.9mm|
|NMS-5000||up to 50 GHz||0.99 dB||1.8:1||27 for ≤26.5GHz, 27 for 26-40GHz, 28 for 40-50GHz||2:01||2.4mm|
|NMS-6700||up to 67 GHz||1.12 dB||1.91||29 for ≤26.5GHz, 28.5 for 26-40GHz, 28 for 40-50GHz, 21 for 50-65GHz||3:01||1.85mm|
|NMS-6700-DC*||up to 67 GHz||1.12 dB||1.9:1||29 for ≤26.5GHz, 28.5 for 26-40GHz, 28 for 40-50GHz, 37 for 50-65GHz||3:01||1.85 mm|
|NMS-75500-DC*||50 to 75 GHz||0.4dB||1.2:1**||40 for 50-75GHz||1.6:1**||WR-15|
|NMS-90600-DC*||60 to 90 GHz||0.9dB||1.3:1**||35 for 60-90GHz||1.8:1**||WR-12|
|NMS-110750-DC*||75 to 110 GHz||1.1dB||1.3:1**||36 for 75-110GHz||1.9:1**||WR-10|
|NMS-1701100-DC*||110 to 170 GHz||1.3dB||1.4:1**||36 for 110-170GHz||2:1**||WR-6.5|
* with Downconverter
Noise Circles & Stability Regions
Noise Parameters: Minimum Noise Figure / Rn / Gamma Opt / Phase of Gamma Opt