Noise measurements allow the determination of the four Noise Parameters of a device (transistor). Focus’ Noise Modules integrate well with various third party noise receivers.
Noise Parameters: These are four numbers that fully describe the noise behaviour of an active or passive device (twoport) at a given frequency. For practical reasons we use the following quantities as Noise Parameters:
Focus’ noise parameter extraction routines leverage the PNA-X’s unique implementation
of the cold-source noise figure measurement technique. This specific technique requires a noise source to determine the kBG (gain-bandwidth constant) of the system and a passive mechanical tuner is used to characterize the noise receiver across both the impedance and frequency space. This step is imperative to obtain fully vector-source-corrected measurements.
A RF down conversion stage might be required if the frequency of noise measured exceeds the receiver’s bandwidth. Focus offers noise modules which support down conversion for optimal speed and performance.
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Input Noise Module
Output Noise Module
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Noise Circles & Stability Regions
Noise Parameters: Minimum Noise Figure / Rn / Gamma Opt / Phase of Gamma Opt