Time-Domain Load Pull

Unlock advanced insights with Time Domain Load Pull. Achieve precise waveform shaping and phase characterization for high power, non-linear devices, enabling optimal design and performance in real-time.

Applications Hero Background


The study of nonlinear semiconductor devices to gain a comprehensive understanding of their behavior typically involves a detailed analysis of the time-varying current and voltage waveforms across the device’s terminals. By closely studying these waveforms, engineers and researchers can gather valuable insights into the dynamic behavior, characteristics, and performance of semiconductor devices operating in nonlinear regimes. This detailed consideration of time-varying signals is essential for optimizing device performance, ensuring reliable operation, and advancing the design and development of semiconductor components for various applications.

Expanding a Vector load-pull setup to incorporate fully calibrated time domain measurements involves the addition of a phase reference component. The phase reference serves as a calibrated device that reveals the phase relationships between fundamental and harmonic frequencies, enhancing the precision of time domain measurements.

Time domain characterization techniques play a critical role in analyzing high-power, nonlinear devices by providing insights into process characteristics, facilitating comparisons to knee and breakdown voltages, and categorizing the device into specific operational classes. By shaping current and voltage waveforms in real time during the measurement cycle and accurately terminating both fundamental and harmonic frequencies, designers gain valuable information to select the appropriate Power Amplifier (PA) mode of operation.

By integrating fully calibrated time domain measurements into a Vector load-pull setup, engineers and designers gain a comprehensive understanding of device behavior, enabling informed decisions regarding operational modes and configurations for optimal performance in RF applications.





First step in time domain measurement characterization is the standard small signal calibration, based on established techniques e.g. TRL which are Ratio measurements which ends up with composite error terms. The absolute calibration involves reference to known standards in terms of power and phase. Absolute power calibration is achieved with a calibrated power meter. For relative phase (time) a pre-calibrated phase reference HPR is used.

The measured RF parameters include:

  • ΓLoad, ΓIN
  • Loadlines

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