Sub-THz Vector Load Pull

The TS150-AIT and TS200-THZ probe systems, featuring integrated active impedance tuners, are designed for precise testing in emerging THz applications, including 5G, satellites, and automotive radar. In partnership with Focus Microwaves, MPI offers unmatched accuracy in on-wafer mm-Wave load-pull measurements.

Applications Hero Background


Considering 6G requirements in terms of Radio performance with all the limitations of signal propagation, a higher throughput in terms of power and efficiency is desired from the millimeter-wave (mmW) or THz circuits. The performance of these RF circuits is constrained by the performance of transistors and other active devices. Due to the transistor physical limitations at these frequencies, the maximum available output power degrades drastically. This constraint brings in more value to perform load pull characterization of these active devices in these sub-THz frequency range. Specifically, load pull measurements entail measuring a device under test (DUT) under a variety of impedance matching, power, and bias conditions. Such measurement systems typically use passive impedance tuners to generate the said impedance matching.


Focus took the initiative and developed a new family of waveguide tuners designed for frequencies greater than 110GHz. Leveraging the success and technology of the DELTA tuners and combining it with the micro-metric accuracy and repeatability of the small footprint tuners, these new waveguide tuners will revolutionize the Sub-THz bands.  Focus Microwaves small footprint waveguide tuners and state of the art on-wafer integration with the leading probe station manufacturers (MPI and Form Factor) allow for direct connecting to all subTHZ waveguide probes providing maximum tuning range. With built-in reflectometers for input and output travelling waveforms (a1,2, b1,2) measurements and custom designed downconverter receivers the subTHZ tuners can be used for fully calibrated vector load pull measurements. This approach also allows for easy adaptation to hybrid techniques often used to increase the tuning range of passive load pull system.




  • D-Band Vector Load Pull | 110-170GHz
  • D-Band Hybrid Vector Load Pull | 110-170GHz

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